Unveiling Chandrayaan-3: India’s Latest Moon Mission

Unveiling Chandrayaan-3: India’s Latest Moon Mission


India is about to launch Chandrayaan-3, its next lunar mission, in a stirring demonstration of scientific ambition and national pride. This new mission seeks to advance space exploration by building on the achievements of Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2 in order to increase our understanding of the Moon. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), India’s space agency, is prepared to make another significant step in solving the secrets of our planetary neighbor thanks to cutting-edge technologies, cutting-edge instruments, and a resilient spirit.

Revisiting Chandrayaan-2

Let’s take a quick look back to Chandrayaan-2 before delving into Chandrayaan-3’s specifics. Chandrayaan-2 was an ambitious mission that was launched in July 2019 with the goal of exploring the area around the lunar South Pole. The spacecraft was made up of an orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan rover. The landing module experienced a hard landing and lost contact with the lander and the rover, but the orbiter reached its destination successfully and is still in operation. In spite of this setback, Chandrayaan-2 nevertheless accomplished notable achievements, such as the identification of water molecules on the Moon’s surface, which stoked interest in Chandrayaan-3.

Chandrayaan-3: The Next Chapter

Chandrayaan-3 is a symbol of India’s will to overcome obstacles and continue its lunar exploration initiatives. The successful landing of a rover on the lunar surface will increase our understanding of the geography, mineral makeup, and geology of the Moon. To do this, ISRO carefully examined Chandrayaan-2’s landing failures and made the necessary enhancements and modifications to Chandrayaan-3.

The updated Chandrayaan-3 mission plan calls for improving the lander’s architecture and using reliable landing technologies to guarantee a secure touchdown. The rover’s capabilities have also been improved by ISRO, which has given it cutting-edge instruments to conduct intricate scientific tests. These improvements will give researchers priceless information to examine the Moon’s geological history, prospective resources, and presence of water ice.

The Launch Preparations

At ISRO’s facilities, the Chandrayaan-3 launch preparations are well under way. To ensure that the spacecraft is ready for the journey, the scientists and engineers have been working nonstop. The mission’s prospects of success have been increased by overcoming numerous technical difficulties and demanding tests.

In order to expand its knowledge base and collaborate internationally, ISRO has also done so. These collaborations promote a global cooperative attitude in space research while facilitating the incorporation of cutting-edge technologies.

Launch Vehicle and Timeline

ISRO intends to use the dependable and tested Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mk III for the Chandrayaan-3 mission. Previously, this launch vehicle successfully launched challenging missions like Chandrayaan-2 and the Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan).

The Chandrayaan-3 launch is scheduled to take place within the next two years, according to ISRO. To guarantee that every component of the mission is precisely planned and carried out, extensive simulations and testing will be carried out. The Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, India, which has hosted numerous historic launches in India’s space program, will serve as the launchpad for the mission.


Chandrayaan-3’s impending launch fills us with anticipation and excitement as we witness India’s determination to unravel the secrets of the Moon. Building upon the achievements of Chandrayaan-2, this mission showcases IS

The overall specifications for Chandrayaan-3 is provided below:

Sl No. Parameter Specifications
1. Mission Life (Lander & Rover) One lunar day (~14 Earth days)
2. Landing Site (Prime) 4 km x 2.4 km 69.367621 S, 32.348126 E
3. Science Payloads Lander:


  1. Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)
  2. Chandra’s Surface Thermo physical Experiment (ChaSTE)
  3. Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)
  4. Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) Rover:
  5. Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)
  6. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) Propulsion Module:
  7. Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE)
4. Two Module Configuration
  1. Propulsion Module (Carries Lander from launch injection to Lunar orbit)
  2. Lander Module (Rover is accommodated inside the Lander)
5. Mass
  1. Propulsion Module: 2148 kg
  2. Lander Module: 1752 kg including Rover of 26 kg
  3. Total: 3900 kg
6. Power generation
  1. Propulsion Module: 758 W
  2. Lander Module: 738W, WS with Bias
  3. Rover: 50W
7. Communication
  1. Propulsion Module: Communicates with IDSN
  2. Lander Module: Communicates with IDSN and Rover. Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter is also planned for contingency link.
  3. Rover: Communicates only with Lander.
8. Lander Sensors
  1. Laser Inertial Referencing and Accelerometer Package (LIRAP)
  2. Ka-Band Altimeter (KaRA)
  3. Lander Position Detection Camera (LPDC)
  4. LHDAC (Lander Hazard Detection & Avoidance Camera)
  5. Laser Altimeter (LASA)
  6. Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV)
  7. Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera (LHVC)
  8. Micro Star sensor
  9. Inclinometer & Touchdown sensors
9. Lander Actuators Reaction wheels – 4 nos (10 Nms & 0.1 Nm)
10. Lander Propulsion System Bi-Propellant Propulsion System (MMH + MON3), 4 nos. of 800 N Throttleable engines & 8 nos. of 58 N; Throttleable Engine Control Electronics
11. Lander Mechanisms
  1. Lander leg
  2. Rover Ramp (Primary & Secondary)
  3. Rover
  4. ILSA, Rambha & Chaste Payloads
  5. Umbilical connector Protection Mechanism,
  6. X- Band Antenna
12. Lander Touchdown specifications
  1. Vertical velocity: ≤ 2 m / sec
  2. Horizontal velocity: ≤ 0.5 m / sec
  3. Slope: ≤ 120

The objectives of scientific payloads planned on Chandrayaan-3 Lander Module and Rover are provided below:

Sl. No Lander Payloads
1. Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA) Langmuir probe (LP) To measure the near surface plasma (ions and electrons) density and its changes with time
2. Chandra’s Surface Thermo physical Experiment (ChaSTE) To carry out the measurements of thermal properties of lunar surface near polar region.
3. Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) To measure seismicity around the landing site and delineating the structure of the lunar crust and mantle.
4. LASER Retroreflector Array (LRA) It is a passive experiment to understand the dynamics of Moon system.
Sl. No
Rover Payloads
1. LASER Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) Qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis & To derive the chemical Composition and infer mineralogical composition to further our understanding of Lunar-surface.
2. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) To determine the elemental composition (Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca,Ti, Fe) of Lunar soil and rocks around the lunar landing site.
Sl. No
Propulsion Module Payload
1. Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) Future discoveries of smaller planets in reflected light would allow us to probe into variety of Exo-planets which would qualify for habitability (or for presence of life).





When Chandrayaan-3 will launch?

Chandrayaan-3 will launch on July 13, announces Isro chief.

What is the difference between Chandrayaan-2 and Chandrayaan-3?

Unlike the Chandrayaan-2 mission, Chandrayaan-3 does not have an Orbiter component. The lander and rover are designed to operate, and collect data, on the moon’s surface for one lunar day, which is equivalent to approximately 14 days on earth. That is the entire mission life of Chandrayaan-3

What is the cost of Chandrayaan-3?

Overview of Chandrayaan 3 Launch Date
Name of the mission
Chandrayaan 3
Launching date
12th July 2023 (Expected)
Cost of the mission
Over 75 crore
Chandrayaan includes
Lander, rover, and orbiter

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